At present, 16 HA subtypes (H1H16) and 9 NA subtypes (N1N9) are recognised.
(d) In addition to manual the standard samples, samples of influenza at least five sick, dead or slaughtered birds in the slaughterhouse with pathological findings must be submitted for laboratory influenza tests.
For inactivated vaccines, a test that detects antibodies to the non-structural virus protein that are only produced during diagnostic natural infection has been described.
That may have wider and easier application when an elisa test is developed.Hens infected with the hpai virus may at first lay soft-shelled eggs, but soon stop laying.A set of sera of pigs with a known sero-negative status regarding AI must be used to assess the specificity diagnostic of the HI test for the virus strain to be used (see use of virus strain for serology derived from the outbreak; Chapter viii).Secondary packaging (a) Enough absorbent material in the secondary container to absorb the entire contents of all primary receptacles in case of leakage or damage must be used.diva laboratory test for monitoring infection As an alternative or in addition, testing for field exposure may be performed on the vaccinated birds itself by using diva laboratory tests.Samples must be collected in such a way that at least one sample is obtained from groups of pigs that are in direct contact with each other.Use of sentinels influenza for monitoring infection At the flock level, a simple method is to regularly monitor sentinel birds left unvaccinated in each vaccinated flock, but this approach does have some management problems, particularly in identifying the sentinels especially in large flocks.(b) A clinical inspection in each production unit, including an evaluation of its clinical history and clinical examinations of any poultry, in particular those influenza that appear sick less than 24 hours prior to the time of departure of the poultry.(b) A clinical inspection in each production unit, including an evaluation of its clinical history and clinical examinations of the poultry or other captive birds, in particular those that appear sick.Low pathogenic avian influenza (lpai).16. .(c) When determining the volume influenza of diagnostic specimens being shipped, the viral transport media must be taken into account. Antibiotic medium The through antibiotic medium referred to in point 5 must be based on phosphate-buffered saline at pH 7,0 to 7,4 (checked after the addition of antibiotics).
Having regard to Council Directive 2005/94/EC of 20 December 2005 on Community measures for the control of avian influenza and full repealing Directive 92/40/EEC (1), and savita in particular the second subparagraph of Article 50(1) thereof, The diagnostic manual, as provided for in Directive 2005/94/EC and set thesaurus out.
(d) Independently of negative results to testing of standard samples and subject to local factors a clinical inspection of the poultry in each production unit must be carried out before the official surveillance may be lifted.
Sampling of pigs Particularly on farms that keep both pigs and poultry, either mixed or in separate houses, pigs are at risk of becoming infected with AI directly or indirectly via contact with poultry or poultry products.
Chaptetrategies in the diagnosis of AI As set out in Annex IV to Directive 2005/94/EC, decisions to apply measures in specific areas or contact holdings and the severity torrent of those measures may vary greatly with the magnitude of the risk.
Differential diagnosis as required Primary suspected outbreak Isolated holding Carry out full diagnostic testing, virus isolation bhabhi and characterisation Primary suspected outbreak Holding in densely populated poultry area Carry out full diagnostic testing, virus isolation and characterisation, but concentrate on rapid detection and characterisation methods especially.
In the case of inconclusive or positive laboratory results, any further investigations required to exclude the infection or transmission of AI amongst pigs.
(f) Packages must be sent by air mail or air freight.(c) The standard samples must be taken from the poultry between two and three weeks of age.There is indisputable evidence to show vaccination increases the amount of virus needed to infect birds and decreases the amount of virus excreted.Positive inhibition, such as a titre within 2 to 3 log2 of a positive control, with polyclonal antisera specific for H5 or H7 subtypes cracks of influenza A may serve as a preliminary identification enabling the imposition of interim control measures.Influenza A viruses are the only orthomyxoviruses known hack to infect birds.Carcases must be taken of birds that have died recently or that are severely sick or moribund and have been killed humanely.
The cloacal swabs must be coated in faeces (optimum 1 g).
At least 60 blood samples must be collected from the pigs, two to four weeks from the date of the cull.
(b) A clinical inspection in each production influenza and diagnostic manual unit, including an evaluation of its clinical history and clinical examinations of poultry or other captive birds in particular those that appear sick.